Digital Signature Schemes: General Framework and Fail-Stop by Birgit Pfitzmann

By Birgit Pfitzmann

This e-book, in accordance with the author's Ph.D. thesis, was once chosen throughout the 1995 GI Doctoral Dissertation pageant because the profitable thesis within the foundations-of-informatics track.
Securing integrity for electronic communications within the age of worldwide digital info alternate and digital trade is key to democratic societies and a vital technical problem for cryptologists. As center contribution to advancing the state-of-the-art, the writer develops the recent type of electronic fail-stop signatures. This monograph is self-contained in regards to the historic historical past and cryptographic primitives used. For the 1st time, a basic and complex framework is brought during which cutting edge fail-stop signatures are systematically offered and evaluated, from theoretical foundations to engineering aspects.

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The original names containing "signature schemes" were retained. In the literature, the word "signature scheme" was also sometimes applied to symmetric authentication schemes; such schemes are not listed here. 30 2 History of Digital Signature Schemes Blind Signature Schemes Blind signatures are signatures that the signer issues without being able to see the message she signs. However, she has the guarantee of signing only one message at a time. An important application is untraceable payment schemes: The bank signs so-called electronic coins using a blind signature scheme and sells them.

If C excluded liability in this certificate, it was at B's own risk that he trusted it. Otherwise, C has to show evidence why it believed that the key was A's. This may be a certificate by another party, but eventually some party will be reached that claims to have known it from A directly. This party must at least show a handwritten signature by A on pk and maybe demonstrate other measures it took against being fooled by a forged handwritten signature. 509 [ISO91, ISO95]. Some k-out-of-n trust and diversity can be achieved if more than one certificate with direct knowledge from A are required, and if anyone who certifies a key as being A's must first send the certificate to A via a specific notary public so that the real A hopefully has an opportunity to protest against a false certificate.

A more realistic problem is the generation of real random numbers for key generation. There are several methods, all of which have disadvantages. Fortunately, one does not need to make a choice, but should XOR several independently 18 2 History of Digital Signature Schemes generated strings. At least one of them must be generated with user participation. See [PPSW96] for more details. Relation B e t w e e n Persons and Keys The usual examples of the use of digital signatures assume that the relation between persons and public keys is bijective, at least at any given moment.

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