Deviant Peer Influences in Programs for Youth: Problems and by Kenneth A. Dodge, Thomas J. Dishion, Jennifer E. Lansford

By Kenneth A. Dodge, Thomas J. Dishion, Jennifer E. Lansford

So much interventions for at-risk early life are staff established. but, examine exhibits that adolescents usually discover ways to develop into deviant via interacting with deviant friends. during this vital quantity, major intervention and prevention specialists from psychology, schooling, criminology, and comparable fields learn how, and to what volume, courses that combination deviant early life truly advertise challenge habit. A wealth of facts is reviewed on deviant peer impacts in such settings as treatment teams, replacement faculties, boot camps, staff houses, and juvenile justice amenities. particular feedback are provided for making improvements to present prone, and promising replacement methods are explored.

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Additional resources for Deviant Peer Influences in Programs for Youth: Problems and Solutions (The Duke Series in Child Develpment and Public Policy)

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The first level, the individual level, refers to the characteristics of an intervention recipient that may influence his or her response to an intervention service. For example, individuals may understand or react to an intervention in such a way that they may deteriorate on the very dimension that the program is intended to improve. Characteristics such as age of the youth, gender, behavioral history, and temperament moderate the relation between intervention characteristics and outcomes. As is discussed below, it is likely that such individual characteristics are often social-cognitive in nature and depend heavily on information processing and individual interpretations of an intervention and subsequent reactions.

Identifying with a deviant subculture (Short & Strodbeck, 1965). The emphasis on peer influence in differential association was soon translated into reinforcement theory by Burgess and Akers (1966). Their concept was relatively simple: youth prone to delinquency received relatively high rates of positive reinforcement from peers for committing delinquent acts. Measurement and testing of the differential association hypothesis was difficult. Buehler, Patterson, and Furniss (1966) examined the social interactions of delinquents within an institutional setting.

A commitment to conform to rules is based by and large on positive relationships with socializing agents. Although the foundation of a stake in conformity is a positive relationship with socializing agents, the mechanism is clearly cognitive. Individuals with a high stake in conformity interpret deviant behavior and deviant individuals in a negative light. They avoid social contexts and behaviors that are disruptive to their conformance values. Therefore, in an updated version of the control perspective, Hawkins and colleagues (1992a) propose that bonding to parents and schools jointly reduces the likelihood of engaging in problem behaviors and substance use.

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