Design and Characterization of Integrated Varactors for RF by Inigo Gutierrez, Juan Meléndez, Erik Hernández

By Inigo Gutierrez, Juan Meléndez, Erik Hernández

Varactors are passive semiconductor units utilized in digital circuits, as a voltage-controlled means of storing power with the intention to develop the quantity of electrical cost produced. long ago, using reasonably cheap fabrication procedures corresponding to complementary steel oxide semiconductor (CMOS) and silicon germanium (SiGe) have been saved for built-in circuits operating in frequency levels lower than the GHz. Now, the elevated operating frequency of radio frequency built-in circuits (RF ICs) for communique units, and the craze of system-on-chip know-how, has driven the necessities of varactors to the restrict. because the frequency of RF functions maintains to upward thrust, it really is crucial that passive units reminiscent of varactors are of optimal caliber, making this a serious layout factor.

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Sample text

8 mm) and the same number of islands (25). 13 shows the variation in capacitance with the bias voltage of these varactors. Another way of increasing the size of the islands is by increasing their width. 4 mm). 14 shows the variation in capacitance with the bias voltage of these three varactors. 14, the conclusion drawn is that when the length of the islands is increased, the capacitance increases linearly. 13 Variation in capacitance with the variation of the length of the islands. 14 Influence of the variation of the width of islands on an interdigit varactor.

Consequently, quality is kept almost constant. 12 Variation of the capacitance when varying the number of islands on a PN-junction varactor. 2 Variation of the tuning range and quality with the number of islands. 2 Influence of the Size of the Islands If, instead of increasing the number of islands, their length is increased but their width maintained, the depletion zone also increases. This has the same effect as increasing the number of islands. 8 mm) and the same number of islands (25). 13 shows the variation in capacitance with the bias voltage of these varactors.

Depending on the voltage applied, the depletion zone will be wider or narrower, increasing or reducing CSi and Cd. Therefore, the minimum total capacitance value is reached when VGS ¼ VTH . The advantage of this operating mode for the varactor in comparison with the accumulation mode is that it is possible to control the device capacitance value by means of the voltage between its terminals.  The inversion zone. If the voltage continues to fall (VGS < VTH ), an inversion zone is formed under the gate.

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