Database Fundamentals- First editon by Neeraj Sharma, Liviu Perniu, Raul F. Chong, Abhishek Iyer

By Neeraj Sharma, Liviu Perniu, Raul F. Chong, Abhishek Iyer

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The predicate states what to check, and optionally what to do if the check fails (violation response). If this violation response is omitted, the operation is rejected with a suitable return code. When the constraint is executed, the system checks to see whether the current state of the database satisfies the specified constraint. If it does not, the constraint is rejected, otherwise it is accepted and enforced from that time on. For example, an employee's salary can’t be greater than his manager's salary or a department manager can’t have more that 20 people reporting to him.

The check constraint can be checked by the system before or after operations like insert, update, and delete. 4 Relational algebra Relational algebra is a set of operators to manipulate relations. Each operator of the relational algebra takes either one or two relations as its input and produces a new relation as its output. 3] defined 8 such operators, two groups of 4 each:  The traditional set operations: union, intersection, difference and Cartesian product  The special relational operations: select, project, join and divide.

NULLIFIES – the foreign key is set to null in all such matching cases and the tuple containing the primary key value is then updated (of course, this case could not apply if the foreign key cannot accept null values). In our case, the car identification number can be updated after the IdentificationNumber attribute value of its former owner is set to null. 3 Semantic integrity constraints A semantic integrity constraint refers to the correctness of the meaning of the data. For example, the street number attribute value from the OWNERS relation must be positive, because the real-world street numbers are positive.

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