By Valérie Toureille
De los angeles legal du Châtelet aux tavernes de province, des Coquillards à Gilles de Rais, Valérie Toureille discover l'immense variété des crimes et des délits, des lieux où ils sont commis et de leurs auteurs pour proposer un éclairage inédit sur los angeles société médiévale. Loin de l'image d'un Moyen Age sombre et sanglant, où los angeles violence serait omniprésente et où des juges inflexibles prôneraient l. a. torture, le châtiment du crime dans les temps médiévaux a fortress peu à voir avec notre imaginative and prescient contemporaine. Un acte ne devient "crime" que s'il tombe sous le coup de l. a. justice et los angeles dispersion des peines reflète une échelle de valeurs qui nous est aujourd'hui en partie étrangère. Le vol ou le faux-monnayage se voient ainsi parfois plus sévèrement punis que l'homicide ! Puisant dans de nombreuses assets - registres criminels, coutumiers et textes législatifs -, cette histoire nous plonge au coeur de l. a. justice médiévale, entre vengeance, réparation et punition. D'abord prérogative royale, l. a. justice passe progressivement sous l'autorité des seigneurs et de l'Eglise avec los angeles dilution de l'autorité publique à partir du Xe siècle. Ce sera los angeles grande entreprise des souverains de l. a. fin du Moyen Age que de s'en réapproprier l'exercice et d'en faire l'un des éléments essentiels de l'Etat moderne. Lorsque le XVe siècle s'achève, tous les éléments du droit criminel français sont en position.
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Extra info for Crime et châtiment au Moyen Âge : Ve - XVe siècle
In the higher echelons of society there is even evidence that fresh bread was consumed on a more regular basis and that the strength of ale increased as production could afford to employ more grain. These variations in patterns of consumption naturally affected agricultural production. Because of the nature of medieval documents it is frequently the case that inferences about consumption are drawn from patterns in production. Yet this brief survey of the historical evidence for the consumption of ﬁeld crops suggests that this should be a twoway process.
J. Stone Pottage was comparatively simple to make, while the production of bread and ale was more complex. The ﬁrst stage in bread making is to mill the grain, producing coarse ﬂour on the one hand and bran on the other. 13 Only the wealthiest households and demesne farms baked bread in their own purposebuilt bakehouses; even Dame Katherine de Norwich paid to have her loaves baked in 1337 at 4d. 15 The quality of the bread was chieﬂy affected by the crop from which the ﬂour was derived. 1). 16 The nature of the bread also depended on oven temperature.
C. 11 Specialist labour was not usually needed in the garden, and presumably everybody was aware of the basic techniques of growing fruit and vegetables from experience of their own small gardens. 13 Larger peasant holdings consisted mainly of grain-growing land in the ﬁelds, but for them the garden was a more signiﬁcant proportion of their assets than in the case of the lords’ demesnes—for cottagers and townspeople this could be their only land. Tithe revenues provide a guide to the contribution that horticultural produce made to the whole economy of a parish, as a tenth of garden produce was supposed to go to the support of the rector or vicar along with one in ten of the sheaves, ﬂeeces, and lambs.