By R. Leonardi
Convergence, solidarity and Integration within the ecu Union tackles the elemental theoretical and empirical matters underlying the method of eu integration. easy arguments underlie the e-book. the 1st is that fiscal convergence in postwar Europe has lowered the disparities among areas and that this has been a tremendous accelerator of the force for integration. the second one is that, unlike the location ahead of 1985 whilst kingdom states ruled the circulate to integration, grass roots strain has been the dominant strength because the unmarried ecu Act and the coaching for the only market.
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Additional resources for Convergence, Cohesion and Integration in the European Union
Public policy designed to promote endogenous development needs to focus on lowering the barriers to firm creation and on helping existing firms to migrate into sectors of production where local areas have a comparative advantage. These objectives can be achieved through proactive research and development policies, up-to-date vocational education, increased producer services, aggressive foreign marketing strategies, public-private cooperation, and forward-looking territorial-development and environmental-protection strategies designed to increase the area's attractiveness to indigenous and external entrepreneurs (Garofoli, 1992).
The passage of the SEA in 1985 represented an official recognition that past economic programmes oriented toward national economies and the role of national governments as ultimate guarantors and arbitrators of the market were no longer viable. The latter could now only be exercised, in a limited manner, by a supranational authority, but not before a larger European market was created. It was thought that the benefits of market deregulation and expansion needed to be realised before other changes to the institutions could be considered.
Government interventioil in the economy and the necessity to adhere to regulations operate to throw economic development off-course and upset the natural equilibrium between economic factors. This approach has gained great favour since the 1980s, and liberalisation has been reintroduced into EU welfare-state systems through the deregulation and privatisation policies pursued by governments of both conservative and progressive persuasion. Loukas Tsoukalis (1981) has argued that the growth of Spain, Portugal and Greece in the 1960s and 1970s was based on the reorientation of their markets toward greater interaction with the other countries of Western Europe through the elimination of autarkic economic policies.