Case Valency And Transitivity by Leonid Kulikov, Andrej Malchukov, Peter de Swart

By Leonid Kulikov, Andrej Malchukov, Peter de Swart

The 3 recommendations of case, valency and transitivity belong to the main mentioned subject matters of contemporary linguistics. at the one hand, they're crucially attached with morphological facets of the clause, together with case marking, individual contract and voice. nevertheless, they're with regards to a number of semantic concerns comparable to the which means of case, semantico-syntactic verbal sessions, and the semantic correlates of transitivity. the quantity unifies papers written inside of various theoretical frameworks and representing variegated ways (Optimality idea, executive and Binding, a variety of types of the practical technique, Cross-linguistic and Typological analyses), containing either various new findings in person languages and beneficial observations and generalizations regarding case, valency and transitivity.

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This enriched feature representation labels a dative1 and a dative2 case. Where there is free variation between the two forms we can assume that the mapping rules appeal solely to the (underspecified) attribute-value pair [m-case: dative]. However, we also need to define a mapping from the linearized phrase structure representation telling us how to inflect the components of a multiword noun phrase marked [s-case: dative]. That mapping needs to be able to define a multiword phrase and identify its right edge.

Karlův most ‘Charles Bridge’, literally ‘Karel’s bridge’). However, unlike nouns, the possessive adjectives have no -ovi form for animate masculine singular dative/locative case. Rather, all such masculines take their dative singular in -u, and their locative singular in -ě: ku Karlovu mostu ‘to the Charles Bridge (dative)’, na Karlově mostě ‘on the Charles Bridge (locative)’. The Czech dative illustrates a situation in which the syntax needs to make appeal to a single case feature, dative, while the morphology has to subdivide the case array of certain classes of nouns so as to distinguish dative-u and dative -ovi.

Kera) < Skt. gerundive kārya- ‘to be done’; b. Awadhi, Maithili -ker < Skt. pass. kr̥ ta- ‘done, made’; < Skt. adj. kr̥ tya- ‘to be done’. c. Bhojpuri -kæ Likewise, some dative k-morphemes, such as Hindi -ko, Oriya -ku, Marathi ‑kē, Romani -ke/-ge undoubtedly reveal a vestige of the same Sanskrit root kr̥ - (kar-). The initial stages of the corresponding grammaticalization processes can be dated as early as Old Indo-Aryan. Thus, the starting point of the grammaticalization path of Skt. -artha ‘goal, purpose’ towards the Sinhala dative case suffix -ṭa (see (3) above) is the adverbial usage of the accusative of the Sanskrit bahuvrīhi compounds in -artha(X-artham), meaning ‘having X as a goal, purpose’ → ‘for (the sake of) X’: udakārtham ‘having water as a goal’ → ‘for water’, sukhārtham ‘having happiness, pleasure as a goal’ → ‘for happiness, for pleasure’, tadartham ‘having that as a goal’ → ‘for that, therefore’.

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