Biocatalysis Based on Heme Peroxidases: Peroxidases as by Eduardo Torres, Marcela Ayala

By Eduardo Torres, Marcela Ayala

This monograph describes many functions of peroxidase-based biocatalysis within the biotechnology undefined. the necessity for this kind of publication emerges from the massive volume of recent information in regards to the phylogeny, response mechanisms, thermodynamic characterization and structural positive aspects of fungal and plant heme peroxidases that has been generated long ago 10 years, because the final really expert booklet on peroxidases used to be released. the purpose of this booklet is to provide contemporary advances on such simple elements as evolution, structure-function relation and catalytic mechanism in addition to utilized elements, resembling bioreactor and protein engineering, to supply the instruments for rational layout of better biocatalysts and biocatalytic methods.

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Soon after its development, the clade of APxs segregated from that of CcPs. All known ascorbate peroxidases are divided into three types according to their cellular location [33]. Chloroplastic APxs diverged in the earlier phase, whereas cytosolic and peroxisomal variants evolved together and were separated only in the later stage of evolution. Of particular interest is the sequence analysis of ascorbate peroxidases in chloroplastic protists, which acquired chloroplasts by endosymbiosis [43]. Detailed phylogeny of fungal cytochrome c peroxidases with the inclusion of novel, previously not analyzed sequences mainly from recently finished sequencing projects was recently presented [44].

6 Conclusions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55 Abstract This chapter begins with a description of the main structural features of heme peroxidases representative of the two large superfamilies of plant–fungal– bacterial and animal peroxidases, and the four additional (super)families described to date.

Cerevisiae CcP belongs in this branch. Enzymes from subfamily III, probably the most ancient one, can even possess targeting signals not solely for mitochondria. According to recent data mining (M. Za´mocky´, unpublished work), there exists a minor but important group of hybrid type APx–CcP sequences in fungal and protistan genomes (Fig. 8). In PeroxiBase, 36 sequences of this type are entered (January 2010). These completely unknown peroxidases might represent the missing proteins for the complex phylogenetic reconstruction of this family.

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