Behavioral Sciences: PreTest Self-Assessment and Review by Michael H. Ebert

By Michael H. Ebert

Supplies clinical scholars 500 questions, solutions, and factors to organize for the behavioral technology component to the USMLE Step 1. the recent version comprises many new questions within the two-step scientific layout to simulate the USMLE Step 1.

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Neal Miller developed (with John Dollard) a learning theory of psychotherapy that stated that fear can motivate learning. He also used a variety of behavioral techniques to study the effects of electrical and chemical stimulation of the brain (especially the hypothalamus). Perhaps most important in terms of modern behavioral medicine, he was able to prove that a variety of autonomically mediated visceral responses are subject to instrumental learning. This finding launched a whole new area of investigations that explored and demonstrated mechanisms of interaction between human behavior and human neurophysiology.

Sleep does appear to be necessary for the brain to function normally. After a period of sleep deprivation a rebound phenomenon does occur. The individual will sleep longer and spend a much greater time in REM sleep, but will not regain the number of sleepless hours lost. 7. The answer is b. ) Duodenal ulcer is a chronic and recurrent disease in 6 to 15% of the population. It is difficult to establish biologic and behavioral etiologies. It was once thought that it occurred in persons with a unique personality exhibiting oral-receptive characteristics and unmet oral needs, but such a personality has not been substantiated.

As such, these circuits have a major influence on the cardiovascular and gastrointestinal systems. They also play a major role in mediating the adaptive functions of memory, appraisal, and motivational-emotional responses. Thus, the human neocortex is able to mobilize a metabolic and cardiovascular adaptive response for action by first using these circuits to appraise the functional significance of the environment or of ongoing events. By the brain’s maintaining a constant reappraisal from ongoing feedback, these hypothalamic-limbic-midbrain circuits are able to mediate the integrative processes relevant to action or survival.

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