By Umberto Eco
BAUDOLINO gravita em torno dos prazeres da corte de Federico Hohenstaufen, conhecido como Barbarossa, à época da Terceira Cruzada. A história engloba justamente o período entre 1152 e 1204, começando com a ascensão de Barbarossa ao trono e terminando com a conquista de Constantinopla pela temida ordem dos cavaleiros templários. A trama é protagonizada por Baudolino - adolescente, criativo e mentiroso que dá título à obra - e Niceta Coniate, personagem inspirado em um historiador e orador que viveu na corte de Constantinopla. A narrativa retrocede, enquanto Baudolino conta a Niceta suas aventuras e desventuras, numa mistura de fantasia e realidade, História e faz-de-conta. Tudo isso temperado por inúmeras situações cômicas. No intervalo, Eco embaralha os seus personagens inventados e produz o mais recorrente efeito de seu texto: interferir em acontecimentos históricos conhecidos por meio de atos ou circunstâncias vividas pelos personagens fictícios.
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R. evans The sources for what we know of medieval thinking on law and nature include the Church Fathers and scholastic theologians, as well as Roman legal writings, and the somewhat confused cluster of texts that were drawn together in the twelfth and thirteenth centuries to constitute a body of recognized “canon law” for academic study. Of the first importance here is Gratian’s Decretum from the 1140s, the ground-breaking manual of canon law on which many subsequent treatises and commentaries would rely.
Hart, The Concept of Law (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1961) p. 7. 17). Accordingly, echoing Aristotle’s claim that rationality is central to being human, Cicero takes lex to be ratio – the reason inherent in human nature and according to which a person ought to direct his actions. 19). This accords well enough with Aquinas’s Christian version of the same basic cluster of ideas. The belief that natural law is innate in human nature and is known by reason rather than biblical revelation also provides a basis for rational assessment of positive law.
Others argued that it was a Christ-appointed law, as some of the Franciscans taught, that the observation of perfect poverty as exemplified by Christ involved renunciation not only of property but also of the “right of use in exterior things” – and even, perhaps, the actual use. Pope John XXII stated in 1323 that this was to be deemed heresy. ) Behind these refinements loomed still more fundamental questions. How, for example, could one justify the first appropriation for personal use of property taken from a stock of creation God gave to everyone, so that some came to possess what others did not, while those others were deprived even of the freedom to use it?