By Igor V. Minin, Oleg V. Minin
The short common fundamentals of antenna arrays -- Lens applicants to antenna array -- FZP lens array -- a few fields of lens array purposes
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Extra resources for Basic Principles of Fresnel Antenna Arrays
The advantage of using cylindrically shaped subwavelength features is that inexpensive fabrication processes such as conventional mechanical drilling can be employed for DE fabrication. The authors  also extend the concept of subwavelength DEs to longer millimeter wavelengths. To design DEs with spatially varying effective properties, a cell-encoding scheme was employed. In this process, a DE with a desired 34 1 The Brief Elementary Basics of Antenna Arrays continuous phase response was approximated by a number of finite size cells.
We can see that: d / 2 = Rm − Rm−1 . On the other hand, tan θ ≈ sin θ = λ / d , which shows that the slit separation varies inversely with radius. Substituting this expression into Eq. 22) yields the formula: 1 1 1 , F⎛λ ⎞ + = f n = ⎜⎜ ⎟⎟ . A B fn n ⎝ λ0 ⎠ This last formula is recognized as being the familiar Gaussian lens formula for a lens with a focal length fn. That is, the zone plate will act just like a thin lens with a focal length fn. Also, since n can take on negative values, the zone plate acts like a diverging lens as well as a converging lens.
Researchers at Bell Telephone Labs filed a patent for the first PCFL antenna in 1939 , which was designed at 30 GHz with material having a dielectric constant of 20. C. . Despite this activity, the PCFL antenna did not become popular until 1960 when Sobel et al.  designed and tested the first PCFL antennas at millimeter wave frequencies. Their designs were quite novel and involved phase corrections smaller than 180° which had never been implemented before. This led to aperture efficiencies on the order of 50–60%.