Armies and Enemies of the Crusades, 1096-1291 by Ian Heath

By Ian Heath

Company, strategies, costume and guns

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A. A. van de Koppel, and R. Peters, 133–39, 209–11. University of Amsterdam, 1982. A. ’’ In Studies in Islamic Poetry, ed. A. Nicholson, 43–289. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press, 1969. Smoor, Pieter. ’’ In Zeitschrift der Deutschen Morgenla¨ndischen Gesellschaft, Band 138-Heft 2, 283–312. Wiesbaden: Franz Steiner Verlag, 1988. Studies concerning Chapters and Endings, Glorifying Allah and Offering Words of Warning Fischer, August. -hist. Klasse XCIV (1942), no. 2. Hartmann, Richard.

He eventually retired there with his court, thereby truncating the link between the Marwanid house and its turbulent capital. The construction of Madinat al-Zahra’ was supervised by ‘Abd alRahman’s son and heir al-Hakam. The process lasted for about ten years and absorbed most of the caliph’s concerns and financial resources: sources describe his endless search for precious materials and skilled craftsmen, which were found in North Africa, the East, and Byzantium. It was also at this new caliphal residence that ‘Abd al-Rahman al-Nasir received the ambassadors of many Islamic and Christian kings and potentates, especially the ones sent by the Byzantine emperors, who were actively pursuing an alliance against the Fatimid expansion in the eastern Mediterranean and acknowledged ‘Abd al-Rahman’s influential role and power.

Leiden and London, 1960. Vol. 1, 109–11. ABU HANIFA AL-NU‘MAN Abu Hanifa al-Nu‘man b. Thabit b. Zuta, theologian and jurist, is the eponymous founder of the Hanafi legal school. He was born in Kufa circa AH 80/699 CE and died in 150/767 in a prison in Baghdad at the age of 70. His grandfather Zuta is said to have been brought over from Kabul to Kufa, where he settled after being set free. There are not many details available about Abu Hanifa’s life in Kufa. Sources report that he worked there as a silk merchant and also that he acquired scholarly training in the religious law and hadith.

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