Algebraic Cryptanalysis by Gregory Bard

By Gregory Bard

Algebraic Cryptanalysis bridges the distance among a direction in cryptography, and with the ability to learn the cryptanalytic literature. This booklet is split into 3 components: half One covers the method of turning a cipher right into a procedure of equations; half covers finite box linear algebra; half 3 covers the answer of Polynomial structures of Equations, with a survey of the equipment utilized in perform, together with SAT-solvers and the equipment of Nicolas Courtois.

The cipher Keeloq, utilized in approximately all vehicles with distant key-less access, is defined as a working instance, together with the manipulation of the equations to allow their answer. The circulate cipher Trivium, besides its editions Bivium-A and Bivium-B, and the circulate cipher relatives QUAD also are analyzed as vast examples, together with summaries of a number of released attacks.

Additional themes include:

Analytic Combinatorics, and its program to cryptanalysis

The equicomplexity of linear algebra operations

Graph coloring

Factoring integers through the quadratic sieve, with its purposes to the cryptanalysis of RSA

Algebraic Cryptanalysis is designed for advanced-level scholars in desktop technology and arithmetic as a secondary textual content or reference booklet for self-guided research. This booklet is very compatible for researchers in utilized summary Algebra or Algebraic Geometry who desire to locate extra utilized themes, practitioners operating for safeguard and communications businesses, or intelligence agencies.

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Example text

The theorems, lemmas, facts, and definitions in this book are numbered sequentially together. That is, if a lemma follows Theorem i, it is Lemma i + 1. That means there is no Theorem i + 1 or Lemma i. If a theorem follows these, it will be Theorem i + 2. This numbering is meant to facilitate cross-referencing, and was recommended by Steven G. Krantz in [150]. Chapter 2 The Block Cipher Keeloq and Algebraic Attacks The purpose of this chapter is to supply a (relatively) new, feasible, and economically relevant example of algebraic cryptanalysis.

K15 . (8) de f 2: Define the f (8) oracle to be fk 3: P ← {} 4: For x = 0 . . 232 − 1 do = g−1 k (Ek (x)). (8) a. If fk (x) = x then do i. For each y ∈ P do A. Write equations assuming fk (x) = x and fk (y) = y. B. Try to solve those equations. C. If the equations yield a key k′ , see if Ek (x) = gk′ (x) and Ek (y) = gk′ (y). • If YES: Halt and report k′ is the secret key. • If NO: do nothing. ii. Insert x into P. 5: Abort. Algorithm 1: The Fixed Point Attack on Keeloq [G. 4 How far must we search?

The first item in the product is from P ({1},c1 ) , the second item from P ({2,4,8},c2 ) , and the third item from P {1,2,4,8} . We must now calculate the EGF. , for an EGF of β (α(z)) = zc1 /c1 !. , therefore an c EGF of β (α(z)) = c12 ! z2 /2 + z4 /4 + z8 /8 2 . c2 ! c2 ! c2 ! ⊔ ⊓ 22 3 The Fixed-Point Attack Corollary 2. Let π be a random permutation from Sn . ) in the limit as n → ∞. 1 Proof. Since this is essentially the previous theorem, but allowing c2 to be any possible value, we can just sum the formula we just derived over c2 = 0, 1, .

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