Advances in Cryptology — CRYPTO '98: 18th Annual by Daniel Bleichenbacher (auth.), Hugo Krawczyk (eds.)

By Daniel Bleichenbacher (auth.), Hugo Krawczyk (eds.)

This publication constitutes the refereed court cases of the 18th Annual overseas Cryptology convention, CRYPTO'98, held in Santa Barbara, California, united states, in August 1998. The ebook offers 33 revised complete papers chosen from a complete of a hundred and forty four submissions got. additionally integrated are invited shows. The papers are geared up in topical sections on selected ciphertext safety, cryptanalysis of hash services and block ciphers, allotted cryptography, 0 wisdom, and implementation.

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Example text

The above results say that PA ⇒ IND-CCA2 ⇒ NM-CCA2. In the other direction, we have the following, whose proof is in [2]. Theorem 7. [IND-CCA2⇒PA] If there exists an encryption scheme Π which is secure in the RO sense of IND-CCA2, then there exists an encryption scheme Π which is secure in the RO sense of IND-CCA2 but which is not secure in the sense of PA. 3 Proof of Theorem 6 Intuition. The basic idea for proving chosen ciphertext security in the presence of some kind of proof of knowledge goes back to [15,16,7,10].

The hatched arrows represent separations we actually prove; all others follow automatically. The number on an arrow or hatched arrow refers to the theorem in this paper which establishes this relationship. 2 We call a result of the first type an implication, and a result of the second type a separation. For each pair of notions we provide one or the other, so that no relation remains open. These results are represented diagrammatically in Figure 1. The (unhatched) arrows represent implications that are proven or trivial, and the hatched arrows represent explicitly proven separations.

The intuition is simple: since the adversary has access to the decryption oracle, she can decrypt the ciphertexts she would output, and so the ability to output ciphertexts is not likely to add power. For the proof, let B = (B1 , B2 ) be an NM-CCA2 adversary attacking Π. nm-cca2 (k) is negligible. To this end, we describe an We must show that AdvB,Π IND-CCA2 adversary A = (A1 , A2 ) attacking Π. sk Algorithm AD 1 (pk) (M, s) ← B1Dsk (pk) x0 ← M ; x1 ← M s ← (M, s) return (x0 , x1 , s ) sk Algorithm AD 2 (x0 , x1 , s , y) where s = (M, s) (R, y) ← B2Dsk (M, s, y) ; x ← Dsk (y) if (y ∈ y ∧ ⊥ ∈ x ∧ R(x0 , x)) then d ← 0 else d ← {0, 1} return d Notice A is polynomial time under the assumption that the running time of B, the time to compute R, and the time to sample from M are all bounded by a fixed ind-cca2 (k) = pk (0) − pk (1) polynomial in k.

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