By W. Babel, A. Steinbuechel (Editor)
Residing platforms synthesize seven various sessions of polymers. they supply constitution and shape for cells and organisms, functionality as catalysts and effort garage and hold the genetic details. a majority of these polymers own technically fascinating homes. a few of these biopolymers are already used commercially. This unique quantity of Advances in Biochemical Engineering/Biotechnology contains 10 chapters. It supplies an summary of the water insoluble biopolyesters, specifically of the microbially synthesized poly-hydroxyalkanoate (PHA) kinfolk. It experiences the cutting-edge of metabolism, legislation and genetic heritage, the newest advances made in genetic optimization of micro organism, "construction" of transgenic vegetation and in vitro synthesis through purified enzymes. additionally, it describes proper applied sciences and evaluates views referring to expanding the commercial viability and competitiveness of PHA and discusses purposes in drugs, packaging, meals and different fields.
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Extra resources for Advances in Biochemical Engineering Biotechnology, Volume 071, Biopolyesters
Solani f. pisi and sequenced (T. E. Kolattukudy, unpublished). Cut1 is the inducible gene that requires CTF1a. Cut2 and cut3 have two nucleotide substitutions in palindrome 1 whereas palindrome 2 is identical to that of cut1. The two nucleotide substitution pre- Polyesters in Higher Plants 41 Fig. 13. Postulated mechanism by which cutin monomers produced by constitutive expres- sion of cut2/3 induce cut1 vents palindrome 1 of cut2/cut3 from binding PBP as can be demonstrated by gel retardation analysis.
Kolattukudy kinase inhibitors prevented cutinase transcription activation by hydroxy fatty acids. Western blot and immunoblot analyses showed that cutin monomers were required for phosphorylation of tyrosine residues and a 50-kDa tyrosinephosphorylated protein was detected . This phosphorylation was found to be involved in transcriptional activation of cutinase as anti-phosphotyrosine antibodies inhibited activation of cutinase transcription induced by cutin monomers. Transacting factors that bind the promoter elements found in the cutinase promoter have been cloned by screening expression libraries with concatenated promoter elements.
Wounding of roots of Abiesbalsamea and Tsugacanadensis also causes the formation of periderm with heavily suberized cell walls. Chemical and ultrastructural examination of the barrier zone laid down in Quercus suber in response to wounding is found to be suberized. Wounding causes suberization, not only on tubers and other organs that are normally protected by suberin but also on fruit and leaves that are normally protected by cutin, leading to the conclusion that suberization is a universal response to wounding in all plant organs .