By Josh Gregory,Kathleen Petelinsek
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Another example is given in (): () Q: Where is the book? A: I gave it to Mary. ” Since the pragmatic deﬁnition of focus does not depend on interpretation or on stress assignment, these properties must be derived from (topic and) focus assignment. ), a stress rule was proposed which derives stress from focus assignment. Interpretation in this framework follows mainly from topic assignment as seen above. architectures and information structure Focus plays a role only in its interaction with the topic.
This is how the interaction between topic and focus comes into play. It is also the explanation for both topic chaining and focus chaining. A topic remains on top of the ﬁle and can therefore be continued. A focused element can become a topic in the next sentence since focusing a discourse referent requires the positioning of its card on the top of the stack. The ﬁle system thus involves locating cards on top of a stack (topics) or positioning them there (foci). In addition, each card manipulated through the processing of an utterance is also updated with the information contained in the utterance.
One of the principles determining quantiﬁer scope in Kuno is that a topicalized quantiﬁer has scope over a non-topicalized one. This principle also follows from the deﬁnition of topics here as long as the topicalized element is indeed interpreted as a topic. below) contributes to wide scope, may not be required with the broad deﬁnition of topics employed here. 21 See Erteschik-Shir : chapter for a more complete analysis of scope as it follows from topic assignment. 22 This interpretation requires stress on the numeral.