A syntax of substance by David Adger

By David Adger

In A Syntax of Substance, David Adger proposes a brand new method of word constitution that eschews practical heads and labels constructions exocentrically. His notion concurrently simplifies the syntactic process and restricts the variety of attainable buildings, ruling out the ever present (remnant) roll-up derivations and forcing a separation of arguments from their obvious heads. This new process has a few empirical results, which Adger explores within the area of relational nominals throughout diversified language households, together with Germanic, Romance, Celtic, Polynesian, and Semitic. He indicates that the relationality of such nouns as hand, edge, or mother -- which appear to have as a part of their that means a relation among elements -- is absolutely a part of the syntactic illustration during which they're used instead of an inherent a part of their that means. This empirical end result follows at once from the hot syntactic method, as does a unique research of PP enhances to nouns and possessors. Given this, he argues that nouns can, typically, be regarded as easily requirements of substance, differentiating them from real predicates.

A Syntax of Substance bargains an leading edge contribution to debates in theoretical syntax concerning the nature of syntactic representations and the way they connect with semantic interpretation and linear order.

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We can then state the binary Cartesian product of CLex as a set of Label Transition Functions (LTFs), which I will call Λ: (35) Λ = CLex x CLex = {, , , , , . . } Λ itself is subject to no constraints; it allows mappings from any category to any other. It is therefore extremely liberal in what it allows. , what category can be a specifier of what). Part of the acquisition process is determining what the content of Λ is. Evidence for this in particular languages will be found in the morphology and in the distributional patterns found in the primary linguistic data.

Rather than drawing a functional category from the lexicon and Merging it with some syntactic object, and hence labeling the result, the system capitalizes on the idea that the order of functional categories must be given anyway. This order is specified universally in the UEPs, but in any particular language, Λ will specify allowable subsequences of the universal orders (as well as allowable transitions from one sequence to another). So rather than having a functional lexicon, we simply use the antecedently given order of functional categories in a language as the source of labeling information.

P(e) ∧ Future(e)] In this case, because the lower Modal node is a segment of the upper, the interpretation of the whole structure is simply the interpretation of the label of the higher structure applied to the lower i-specifier: (30) a. By clause (22b) [[26]] = [[[Modal]]◦([[23]]) b. Agent(e, Lilly) ∧ jump(e)) c. [Agent(e, Lilly) ∧ jump(e) ∧ Future(e)] We have seen that a fairly standard approach to the syntax semantics map can be implemented in the new phrase-structural system, where the order of semantic composition is driven by the definitions of the syntactic relations.

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