A Course in Lens Design by Chris Velzel

By Chris Velzel

A direction in Lens layout is an guideline within the layout of image-forming optical structures. It teaches how a passable layout might be bought in an easy manner. thought is restricted to a minimal, and used to aid the sensible layout paintings. The publication introduces geometrical optics, optical tools and aberrations. It offers an outline of the method of lens layout and of the suggestions utilized in this approach. 1/2 its content material is dedicated to the layout of 16 sorts of lenses, defined intimately from commencing to finish. This ebook isn't the same as so much different books on lens layout since it stresses the significance of the preliminary stages of the layout strategy: (paraxial) lay-out and (thin-lens) pre-design. The argument for this modification of accessory is that during those levels a lot info should be acquired in regards to the homes of the lens to be designed. this data can be utilized in later levels of the layout. This makes A direction in Lens layout an invaluable self-study booklet and an appropriate foundation for an introductory direction in lens layout. the maths often used is university algebra, in a couple of sections calculus is utilized. The e-book should be utilized by scholars of engineering and technical physics and by means of engineers and scientists.

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34 2 Optical Instruments (Paraxial Approximation) Fig. 9 Vignetting in a simple telescope Fig. 10 Telescope with field lens In this set-up the eye of the observer should be immediately behind the eye lens; in many situations this is not practical, an eye relief of a few centimeters is usually required. This leads to a compromise, by taking a slightly larger Uoc and increasing the focal length of the field lens, we obtain the final lay-out. See Fig. 11. 75 Galilei’s telescope consists of a positive objective and a negative eye lens.

21) follows that ad - bc = 1. With A ¼ nh/r þ nu ¼ ni; A ¼ nh=r þ nu ¼ ni; where i, i are the angles of incidence and r is the surface radius we can also write À Á H ¼ n hi À ih ¼ hA À hA ð1:23Þ This expression will be used in the derivation of the stop shift equations in Sect. 4. 16) given in Sect. 3. 12) can be used, but this leads to a proliferation of formulas. A numerical approach as given in this section is more efficient. As an example we show how to find the principal points of a doublet.

The angular magnification of the compound microscope is given by M ¼ Mob 250 ; f oc ð2Þ where Mob is the (linear) magnification of the objective and foc the focal length of the ocular. 5 lm. This is of the order of the wavelength of light, so we should consider the effect of diffraction. According to the theory of diffraction the smallest detail that can be resolved by an objective with aperture angle u is given by [see Sect. 53)] Dy ¼ 0:6 k ; n sin u where n is the index in object space, k is the wavelength in vacuo; n sin u is called the numerical aperture.

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