A Concise Grammar for English Language Teachers by Tony Penston

By Tony Penston

A Concise Grammar for English Language lecturers - это новая редакция очень популярной грамматики A Grammar path for TEFL certificates. Эта книга является, пожалуй, единственно действительно удобной грамматикой для преподавателей английского языка .... находка для тех, кто раньше «боялся» английской грамматики. Ясно и четко рассматривает проблемные моменты, с которыми обычно сталкиваются учителя, например, распознавание времен и их употребление, условия, вспомогательные глаголы, относительные предложения и т.д.
Включает в себя множество заметок к преподаванию с практическими рекомендациями, а также раздел, посвященный анализу и коррекции ошибок, демонстрирует использование доски и парной-работы. Если вы совершенствуете свой английский самостоятельно или на заочных курсах - это пособие будет очень полезным для вас.

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We can then state the binary Cartesian product of CLex as a set of Label Transition Functions (LTFs), which I will call Λ: (35) Λ = CLex x CLex = {, , , , , . . } Λ itself is subject to no constraints; it allows mappings from any category to any other. It is therefore extremely liberal in what it allows. , what category can be a specifier of what). Part of the acquisition process is determining what the content of Λ is. Evidence for this in particular languages will be found in the morphology and in the distributional patterns found in the primary linguistic data.

Rather than drawing a functional category from the lexicon and Merging it with some syntactic object, and hence labeling the result, the system capitalizes on the idea that the order of functional categories must be given anyway. This order is specified universally in the UEPs, but in any particular language, Λ will specify allowable subsequences of the universal orders (as well as allowable transitions from one sequence to another). So rather than having a functional lexicon, we simply use the antecedently given order of functional categories in a language as the source of labeling information.

P(e) ∧ Future(e)] In this case, because the lower Modal node is a segment of the upper, the interpretation of the whole structure is simply the interpretation of the label of the higher structure applied to the lower i-specifier: (30) a. By clause (22b) [[26]] = [[[Modal]]◦([[23]]) b. Agent(e, Lilly) ∧ jump(e)) c. [Agent(e, Lilly) ∧ jump(e) ∧ Future(e)] We have seen that a fairly standard approach to the syntax semantics map can be implemented in the new phrase-structural system, where the order of semantic composition is driven by the definitions of the syntactic relations.

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