A Brief History of the Vikings by Jonathan Clements

By Jonathan Clements

'From the Fury of the Northmen bring us, O Lord'. among the 8th and 11th centuries, the Vikings surged from their Scandinavian place of origin to alternate, raid and invade alongside the coasts of Europe. Their impact and expeditions prolonged from Newfoundland to Baghdad, their battles have been as far-flung as Africa and the Arctic. yet have been they nice seafarers or determined outcasts, noble heathens or oafish pirates, the final pagans or the 1st of the trendy Europeans? This concise examine places medieval chronicles, Norse sagas and Muslim money owed along more moderen study into ritual magic, genetic profiling and climatology. It contains biographical sketches of a few of the main well-known Vikings, from Erik Bloodaxe to Saint Olaf, and King Canute to Leif the fortunate. It explains why the Danish king Harald Bluetooth lent his identify to a twenty-first century instant expertise; which destiny saint laughed as she buried international ambassadors alive; why such a lot of Icelandic settlers had Irish names; and, how the final Viking colony was once destroyed through English raiders. Extending past the conventional 'Viking age' of such a lot books, "A short heritage of the Vikings" locations unexpected Scandinavian inhabitants circulation in a much broader historic context. It provides a balanced appraisal of those notorious sea kings, explaining either their quick enlargement and its meant halt. intended simply because, finally, the Vikings didn't disappear: they become us.

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The dining-room,” p. 383, n. 113. For a comprehensive description of furnishings in middle-class houses of al-Fusṭāṭ see Goitein, Daily Life, 105–38. SURVEY OF THE SOURCES FOR THE STUDY OF THE MEDIEVAL CAIRENE FOOD CULTURE Since food and foodways of a historic population constitute quite broad and heterogeneous fijields of research, the present study required using a rather diverse collection of sources. 1 These works were written or compiled by authors who were coming from various social, political, ethnic, and geographical environments, pursued various professions, professed diffferent faiths, and belonged to various epochs.

80 The commercial space was restricted to the ground floor, and occasionally the floor above was used for storage. There were no internal connections between the commercial space and 77 Ibn Sa īd al-Maghribī, An-Nujūm az-Zāhira fī Ḥulyi Ḥaḍarat al-Qāhira (al-qism al-khāṣṣ bi-l-Qāhira min Kitāb al-Mughrib fī Ḥulyi al-Maghrib), ed. Ḥusayn Naṣṣār (Cairo: Dār al-Kutub al-Miṣriyya, 1972), 23. J. Brill, 1989), 40. ” Art and Archeology Research Papers 14 (1978): 24. 80 In general, khān and wikāla were commercial centers, while qayṣāriyya was industrial.

Of the non-Arab settlers in al-Fusṭāṭ, there were two contingents, possibly ca. 500 men, of the Byzantine converts to Islam,25 and the Banū Rūbīl contingent of converted Jews who could have numbered as many as 1,000 men. Other non-Arab groups included the Persians who once formed a Sasanian garrison in San’a, and al-Ḥabash, the Ethiopians or Nubians who settled on the Giza bank of the Nile. It is not clear whether the latter had converted to Islam or not. 26 In fact, early al-Fusṭāṭ was, to use Yaacov Lev’s words, “an Arab-Muslim town planted in the midst of a 23 Kubiak, Al Fusṭāṭ, 93.

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